August 2016 - Hawkdive

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion

Wednesday, August 31, 2016 0
Whenever a new operating system or its beta version is launched by Apple, everyone is excited and eager to upgrade to the new version for a change but at the same time its also critical to some business or to some professional or could be frustrating for personal use also as some of your important software may not work which leads to downgrade to previous version of OS X. It may become unstable or annoying for you by running slower than before. It is always recommended to check the reviews and compatibility report for the new OS X version on the internet before you upgrade. These information can be found few months later from the date, OS X is released so give your Mac some time before you upgrade, do not make haste. Also do not depend on the minimum hardware requirement because they are just a benchmark. You may need to upgrade your memory from 2 GB to 4 GB if you are planning to upgrade to OS X El Capitan. Apple does not provide any tool for downgrading your OS X, you will need to do a clean installation in order to downgrade to any previous version.

Why would you Downgrade Mac OSX El Capitan?

As of writing most Mac users are happy with the latest version of OS X El Capitan, but for some situations are adverse, the new version of OS X 10.11 is very slow and incompatible with many software like some versions of Microsoft Office, some music editing software or instruments and some video editing and mixing software.
Here is a list of affected software on compatibility issue with El Capitan which could also be found on Apple's support website - https://discussions.apple.com/docs/DOC-8801 or the respective software developer's website.
As of writing, Steinberg (Cubase, Nuendo, Wavelab), EastWest (Play), Avid (Pro Tools), Slate DigitalGobbler and others are still advising customers to stay put on Yosemite.
Whatever the reasons are, a solution for these situations can be to downgrade from OS X El Capitan and revert back to the prior version of OS X that was running on that Mac. Though, this practice is not specifically recommended by Apple, but you have no choice other than waiting for an update or patch from Apple. So if you’re absolutely set on reverting from El Capitan to the prior version of OS X running on your Mac, you can likely do so. 

Which OS X version would you downgrade to?

You may want to downgrade from OS X El Capitan to OSX Mavericks because it is found that El Capitan and Yosemite ( OS X 10.10) are both slow. Yosemite and El Capitan was created on a SSD drive which are faster than normal disc spinning type drives. So they work better and faster if you have an internal SSD hard drive.If you're using disc spinning type drive then Mavericks( OS X 10.9) should be your best choice.

In order to downgrade from El Capitan to Mavericks or any prior version of OS X, the first thing you need to do is to get a copy of the installation file of the version you are downgrading to or check if you have a Time Machine backup of that version. If you do not have a Time Machine backup or the Installation file then you will have to download the required version from App store.

Starting from OS X 10.9 Mavericks you can not download or buy it from App store as Apple has completely removed the links of the prior version of OS X from its website or App Store but if necessary you could request one from Apple by contacting them. If your Mac ran OS X Mavericks at any point in the past, you can re-download it from the Mac App Store's Purchased tab.If you can not get the OS X Mavericks from anywhere then you still have an option to buy the license for Mountain Lion as Apple still lets you buy license codes for Mountain Lion(OS X 10.8) , Lion ( OS X 10.7) and Snow Leopard ( OS X 10.6). Once you buy the license you will receive a redemption code from Apple within 24 hours by email.Go to featured tab in App store on your Mac and select the link redeem on the right hand side under the Quick Links > enter the redemption code and then Apple ID and password, and it will allow you to download the Mountain Lion.

Redeem the License code for mountain lion from App Store
Redeem the License code for mountain Lion to download it from App Store

Mountain Lion OS X 10.8 is a great operating system from Apple. It's the last version of OS X that supports some video conversion applications and it runs very fast so downgrading from El Capitan to Mountain Lion is the best option for me.

Important Information before downgrading from El Capitan to Mountain Lion:

It is also worth noting that you cannot simply revert Mac OS X El Capitan back to a prior version and keep all of your files. When Mac OS X updates to the latest version El Capitan, it also updates the file structure in apps like iPhoto, iTunes, Calendar, Mail and so on. Apple doesn’t create any system that enables you to roll back these files structure to an earlier version and keep all these files, so you will need to take back up of these files separately. Downgrading will include erasing of the entire hard drive including recovery partition of the current OS X version and then installation of the older OS X version and creation of its recovery partition by OS X.

There are three major methods of downgrading from OS X El Capitan to Mountain Lion.

Disclaimer:  Installing/downgrading any operating system carries the risk of data loss. Always keep a fully functional, independent backup of your data. (Note: Hawkdive is not responsible for any data loss.)

Method 1: Downgrade OS X El Capitan via Time Machine

This is the easiest and simple method of downgrading from El capitan to Mountain lion as it restores all the files, folders, programs and settings back to what it was on the prior version. But before following this method, make sure you have a Time Machine backup from your previous OS X install. If you don’t have it, skip to method 2 outlined later in this article.

  • Shut down your Mac and Go to the Recovery Mode by restarting the Mac and then holding down Command + R until you see the Apple Logo. You can also hold down Option/Alt and then choose the Recovery option. 
  • At the OS X Utilities menu, Select “Restore From Time Machine Backup”
  • Connect your Time Machine backup drive that contains the most recent Mountain Lion backup then click “Continue”
  • At the “Select a Backup Source” screen, choose the Time Machine volume used for the Mountain Lion backup and click Continue
  • Under “Backup Date & Time”, select the most recent backup made from OS X Mountain Lion– double-check the OS X Version menu to make sure it’s “10.8.5” (or whatever 10.8.x you had previously), then click Continue again.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
  • Choose the Destination drive (the El Capitan volume you want to downgrade) to restore the OS X Mountain Lion backup to – this will erase OS X El Capitan and revert back to Mavericks on that drive, be sure you backed up all files created between the most recent backup date and now or you will lose them – click on “Restore” to begin the downgrade process

Method 2: Downgrade from OS X El Capitan using internet Recovery

This is another easier method of downgrading your Mac OS X. Starting from 2010, Apple introduced its Internet Recovery service. Some computers that came with OS X Snow Leopard and earlier installed can also use the OS X Internet Recovery feature after applying a firmware update - Computers that can be upgraded to use OS X Internet Recovery. Internet recovery reinstall the OS X version that was originally shipped with the computer. For example, if the Mac shipped with OS X Mavericks but is now running OS X Yosemite, then OS X Mavericks would be the version that reinstalls through the Internet Recovery installation process.If your MacBook originally came with Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion then internet recovery will install the Mountain Lion not El Capitan or Yosemite.
This version of OS X downloading through internet recovery isn't associated with your Apple ID so you may use a new Apple ID if you have forgotten your old one.

Steps to perform Internet Recovery

  • Shut down your Mac and Turn it back on. Immediately after hearing the Mac boot chime, hold down Command+Option+R – you will see a spinning globe appear as the system downloads the recovery tools from Apple.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
  • Note : If your Mac can access any saved networks from current OS X, it will join the Wi-Fi network automatically otherwise you would see an option to join a WI-FI network.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
  • When you see a spinning globe icon, it can take a while, a progress bar appears as the recovery functions are downloaded.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion through Internet Recovery
  • When finished downloading, you’ll see the similar “OS X Utilities” screen, choose “Reinstall OS X” to begin the re-installation process. Select the destination as Macintosh HD and complete the re-installation (or installation) of OS X as usual.

Note:- You’ll notice the version of OS X that can be reinstalled this way is shown in the icon or listed under the “Reinstall OS X” option. For Macs that do not currently have an operating system found or installed, the option will show as “Install OS X” rather than “Reinstall OS X”.

Method 3: Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion using a Bootable USB installer drive

This is a bit complex method for downgrading from EL Capitan to Mountain Lion as this process include - creating a bootable installer media, erasing the complete hard drive ,and then reintalling the Mountain lion from USB installer drive. In order to make a bootable USB intaller disk the first thing you need to do is to get a copy of the installation file of Mountain Lion.If your Mac ran OS X Mountain Lion at any point in the past or if you have previously purchased it, you can download it again from the Mac App Store and create a bootable USB flash drive with it. You may already have this if you’ve done an install before. Open the Applications folder and check for the Install Mac OS X Mountain Lion folder.
Here’s how you can download and obtain a soft copy of Mountain Lion.

  • Launch App Store, and go to the Purchases tab.
  • Look for OS X Mountain Lion, hold down the Option key and click Download.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
  • Enter your Apple ID and password if asked.This may take up between 10 and 60 minutes, depending on your Internet connection speed.
    Download Mountain Lion to create bootable USB Install Media
    Download Mountain Lion to create bootable USB Install Media

If you have never downloaded Mountain Lion from App Store or never ran it on your Mac then you will need to purchase the license code for Mountain Lion and then redeem it as mentioned above in this article. The alternate option to purchase the Mountain Lion is to borrow the installation file of Mountain Lion from any of your friends who have it and then create the install media with the same file.


Steps to create bootable USB installer

Once you have got the Installation file of Mountain Lion then you can use any blank USB flash drive or other removable media to make it a bootable USB installer of OS X. Make sure the Flash drive or removable media has minimum 8 GB of available free space. Do not start the installation process when your download finishes as it will not run on the current version of OS X because the current version is higher than Mountain Lion.

1. Create bootable OS X Mountain Lion manually

  1. Once your download is done, go to Finder > Applications. Look for the file called "Install OS X Mountain Lion", right-click and select Show Package Contents.
    Create bootable OS X Mountain Lion manually
    Create bootable OS X Mountain Lion manually
  2. Navigate to Contents > SharedSupport, then look for the filename "InstallESD.dmg"
     Revert back to mountain lion from el capitan
    Create bootable OS X Mountain Lion manually to downgrade El Capitan
  3. Double-click InstallESD.dmg to open/mount it on your Desktop. This may take a minute or two.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
  4. Now make invisible file visible to see the BaseSystem.dmg inside the InstallESD.dmg.Run the following command " defaults write com.apple.Finder AppleShowAllFiles TRUE" and "killall Finder" to show all files.
    Show All hidden Files and Folders
    Show All hidden Files and Folders
  5. Now open mounted InstallESD folder from Desktop and mount BaseSystem.dmg file under it.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
  6. Attach a USB/external drive and open disk utility to format the USB/external drive to Mac OS Extended (Journaled).
  7. Now click on the newly formatted USB/external drive and go to the edit menu on top menu bar and select Restore.
    Restore Image from Disk Utility in El Capitan
    Restore Image from Disk Utility in El Capitan to make bootable USB
  8. In the new window select the image BaseSystem.dmg under Restore from and click "Restore".This will make USB/external drive bootable installer. 
    Restore Image from Disk Utility in El Capitan to make bootable USB
    Restore Image from Disk Utility in El Capitan to make bootable USB
  9. Just one last change to fix the bootable installer - open the newly created bootable disk and go to the System/Installation/ folder and delete the alias named Package.And now from the previously mounted InstallESD.dmg copy over the Packages folder to System/Installation/ folder in newly created USB/external drive.
    Fix the Bootable USB / External Disk Installer for Mountain Lion
    Fix the Bootable USB / External Disk Installer for Mountain Lion
  10. Now while the USB/external bootable drive is connected shutdown the computer and turn it back on and immediately press and hold Option/Alt key and choose OS X Base System to start the installation process of Mountain Lion.
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion using bootable USB installer
    Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion using bootable USB installer
  11. First of all you need to erase the existing OS X El Capitan and then install the OS X from utilities menu.
2. Create bootable OS X Mountain Lion with DiskMaker X

DiskMaker X (formerly Lion DiskMaker) is an application built with AppleScript that you can use with many versions of OS X to build a bootable USB thumb drive, an external Firewire or Thunderbolt drive from OS X installer program (the one you download from the App Store). As soon as you launch the application, it tries to find the OS X Install program with Spotlight.Then, it proposes to build a bootable install disk and make it look as nice as possible. It’s the easiest way to build an OS X Installer in a few clicks! Then you can use the Install drive to fully re-install the OS on a freshly formatted drive, or install it on your many Macs without re-downloading the full installer.

Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion
Downgrade from OSX El Capitan to Mountain Lion

*********End Of Article *******

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Thursday, August 11, 2016

All admin accounts changed to standard on Mac

Thursday, August 11, 2016 1
When you bring a brand new Mac or set up your Mac OS X for the first time after clean installation, your initial account that you create during setup is always an admin account. An admin account allows you to configure the system, install new software and hardware and access all the files on the system or make any changes to the other user accounts. Imagine a situation where all the admin accounts on your mac has changed into standard, how would you install / uninstall a software or hardware? In this post I am going to describe about the troubleshooting steps if all the admin accounts on your Mac has turned into standard.
All admin accounts changed to standard on Mac
All admin accounts changed to standard on Mac
After reading different articles on the internet I found that this issue is more likely to occur after the following activities.
  • Upgrading the OS X , e.g. from OS X 10.10 Yosemite to OS X 10.11 El Capitan, 
  • Restoring OS X from backup, 
  • Making heavy modifications to the system
You do not need to worry even if you have lost all of your admin accounts you still have root which you could use to convert standard accounts into admin.I am going to show you some really simple options to regain access to your lost admin accounts. The only thing you need to do a little complex is " Reset Root password". Here are some simple methods to recover the lost admin accounts.

Option 1

Using Recovery Mode
This option is available for Mac OS X 10.7 and above and it only takes a few steps.Starting with the release of OS X Lion in 2011, Apple stopped selling DVDs of its operating systems and started offering a built-in recovery partition that is created automatically for you during installation and stored in a small hidden section of the hard drive. It contains a stripped-down version of Mac OS X and essential utilities which are used to diagnose hardware issues, reinstallation of OS X , restoration from Time Machine backups and hard drive management.To regain the admin rights we reset the password of the root first and then with the help of root we change other standard users to admin. Follow the steps mentioned below to convert the standard users into admin.

Start the Mac in Recovery Mode:

1. Shut down the computer first then turn it back on and hold "Command + r" keys together until you see the Apple Logo. Let go off the keys and you should see the Apple logo with spinning gear, or progress bar if you are using Yosemite.
2. Mac will boot into OS X on the Recovery Partition and you will see a “OS X Utilities” window.

All the admin accounts changed to standard on Mac
All the admin accounts changed to standard on Mac
3. In the Utilities menu on the top, select Terminal and type: resetpassword and hit return.
4. This will launch a new Reset Password screen at the back,Click on the newly opened window and select the volume Macintosh HD containing the user account.Now select the System Administrator(root) from the drop down list and then type the new password , confirm the password and then click save to change the password.
Reset Password for Root account
Reset Password for Root account
5. Go to Apple Menu at the top. Select OS X Utilities, then Quit OS X Utilities. This will restart the Mac.
6. Login As a Root User: When the login window appears, select "Other..." and log in as the root user using the password that you just created above.  Note: If Mac OS X automatically logs in, choose Log Out from the Apple menu to get to the login window.
7. Once logged in with the root you can change any standard user to admin just by selecting the option " Allow user to administer this computer" under users and group in system preferences.

For OS X 10.6 and below

As we know, OS X 10.6 and below does not have recovery partition. So in order to reset password for root you will need to have their OS X install DVDs, if you don't have one you can buy it from Amazon or Apple. You do not need to install OS X again.

Follow the steps mentioned here below.

1. Hold down the option or C key during boot up and select the boot device as OS X install DVD.This will boot your Mac into the exact same OS X utilities screen with option to reinstall OS X, restore from time machine back up or Disk utility.
2. In the Utilities Menu on the top, choose " Reset Password....".

Reset Password using install DVD
Reset Password using install DVD
3. Select the name of the drive that Mac OS X is installed on, select the user named "System Administrator (root)" from the pop-up menu, type the password in the first field, re-enter the password in the second field, then click on the Save button.
4. Restart your Mac and when the login window appears, select "Other..." and log in as the root user using the password that you just created above.
5. Once logged in with the root you can change any standard user to admin just by selecting the option " Allow user to administer this computer" under users and group in system preferences.

Note: If Mac OS X automatically logs in, choose Log Out (name) from the Apple menu to get to the login window.

Option 2

Using Setup Assistant tool


When you buy a new Mac and open it for the first time or you install the Mac OS X , it's the setup assistant which runs before loading the desktop. Setup Assistant guides you through the steps of creating a new admin account for your newly bought Mac. Once the setup assistant is completed, it creates a hidden file named .AppleSetupDone and save it to /var/db folder to prevent Setup Assistant from running again. Therefore, to have the Setup Assistant run again so that you can create a fresh admin account, you simply need to remove this file and restart the Mac. This will run before any accounts have been loaded, and will run in “root” mode, allowing you to create new admin accounts on your Mac.Your previous accounts will remain intact. You will be logged in automatically with newly created admin account which you could to change other standard account into admin.

To do this follow the steps mentioned below

1. Shut down the computer first. Now turn it back on and hold "Command + S" keys together until you see a black screen with messages written in white. you will see the messages scrolling up and at the end of the screen it will show prompt " root# ". Type the following command to mount the hard drive.

mount -uw /

2. Now that the drive is mounted, you can edit the file system. Delete the file which tells the OS X that the setup has been completed.

rm /var/db/.AppleSetupDone
reboot
Delete the Apple Setup done file to change standard account into admin
Delete the Apple Setup done file to change standard account into admin

3. This will force the next boot to run Setup Assistant. Continue through the rest of the setup process and be sure to select “Do not transfer my data” because all your data remain intact.
Set up assistant
Set up assistant
4. Set up the administrator account - At the end of the setup you'll be prompted to create a user account. That user account should be an administrator. Be sure to make the name of the admin account different from the existing one. If the new account is given the same name as the old one it will overwrite the old account, causing all the old account’s files to be deleted.Once created, you can login with the newly created admin account and change the other back to admin.


Option 3

Reset Root password using Single user mode

Single user mode is a diagnostic mode where a multi user computer operating system boots into a single superuser mode. It is mainly used for maintenance, recovery and diagnostic purposes such as disk diagnostic and repairing, Data recovery after a system or HDD failure and other repair works.This mode can also be used for security purposes because network services do not run, eliminating the possibility of outside interference. and the boot disk isn't even fully mounted. Using the command line in single user mode you can mount an external hard drive and take the back up of your data as well. Here we will be using single user mode to reset the password for " System Administrator ( Root)" and then convert the other standard users into the admin with the help of root privilege.

To do so follow the steps mentioned below

1. Shut down the computer first. Now turn it back on and hold "Command + S" keys together until you see a black screen with messages written in white. you will see the messages scrolling up and at the end of the screen it will show prompt " root# ". Type the following command to mount the hard drive.
mount -uw /

The mount command is necessary because your hard drive is mounted read-only by default, so this re-mounts it in read/write mode.

2.  Run the file system check up utility ( fsck) to check and repair any file system errors or inconsistency.

fsck -fy

if you see a “File system was modified” message, then you should run “fsck -fy” again until you see a message stating “The volume (name) appears to be OK”.

3. Now type the following commands to reset password for root.
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.DirectoryServices.plist
passwd root 

Reset the root password from Single user mode to gain access to admin if all accounts have been changed to standard
Reset the root password from Single user mode to gain access to admin if all accounts have been changed to standard

This command actually enables the Root account and changes the password. You will be prompted for a new password twice. Type the password and hit enter and confirm the same password again and hit enter again.

4. Even if you simply type the command " passwd " it will do the same thing and will allow you to reset password for root on OS X 10.6 and below.
passwd

5. Type reboot hit enter.
6. When the login window appears, select "Other..." and log in as the root user using the password that you just created above.

Select Other to log in with Root
Select Other to log in with Root
7. Once logged in with the root you can change any other user to administrator just by selecting the option " Allow user to administer this computer" under users and group in system preferences.

Note: Your Mac can't start up in single-user or verbose mode if the computer owner or administrator has set a firmware password set. If FileVault is enabled, you need to unlock the startup disk as part of this process. White text appears briefly before the FileVault login screen is shown. After selecting a user and entering the user’s password, the single-user mode or verbose mode startup process continues.
Option 4

CHANGE THE USER GROUP

Another simple method to convert the standard users into admin is " Change the standard users group or make them a member of admin group. In order to change the group of a user you need to login to single user mode first. Follow the steps mentioned below.

1. Shut down the computer first. Now turn it back on and hold "Command + S" keys together until you see a black screen with messages written in white. you will see the messages scrolling up and at the end of the screen it will show prompt " root# ". Type the following command to mount the hard drive.
mount -uw /

the above command mounts the file system in read/write mode.So now we can change the GroupMembership of an account. We will be using the dscl utility to change the user's group. Use the following command, replacing “username” with the short name of the user you want to give admin privileges to:

2. Type the following command and press Return:

ls /Users

3. Look at the listing and note the short name (username) of the affected user account to use it in the next command to add a user in admin Group.

dscl . -append /Groups/admin GroupMembership username

4. type reboot and hit return. The computer will reboot and start up normally, and you’ve successfully changed the GroupMembership of a Standard user account to an admin account.

What if your OS X does not have any Administrator group either?

Once I came across a strange issue that every time I reopen the system preferences or restart the computer I see my user account changes back to a standard user. I had reset the root password to gain the administrative privilege because all of the accounts on my Mac changed into standard user. So I would go to the users and Group in system preferences, select my user account and open the security lock using root and its password then check the box next to " Allow user to administer this computer " to make myself an admin. But much to my surprise when I close the system preferences box and reopen it I see the changes made to my account are reverted and there is no longer any check mark next to  " Allow user to administer this computer ". So I restarted the computer in Single user mode by holding " Command + S " keys together during boot up and typed the following command to check the members in the admin group to see if I am a member of an admin.

dscl . -read /Groups/wheel GroupMembership
dscl . -read /Groups/admin GroupMembership

These commands will look the "wheel" and "admin" groups in the directory and list the account members who are in the respective groups. The wheel group should contain the root account, and the admin group should contain the usernames of all administrative accounts on the system.

In my case, instead of listing the admin group members, the command gave the following error:

<dscl_cmd> DS Error: -1436 (eDSRecordNotFound)

This error states the admin group is missing, which would explain the problem. If the admin group is not available, then the system cannot add new users to it and therefore will not promote any to have administrative functions.While the system preferences may allow you to check the "Admin" box for a user, when the preferences reload the user's credentials, they will not show the user as being a member of the admin group.

So in order to fix this problem you will need to create a replacement administrator group. The admin group is called "admin" but is identified by the system through its "GID" (Group ID number) which is "80." If you create a new group with this number, the system should then allow this group to access files and resources that are tagged with this number.

To do this, the first step is to enable the root user account (Follow the steps mentioned in Option -1  in this article, since using Directory Utility may not work ) and then log in as root.
When logged in, launch the Terminal application and run the following commands sequentially:

dscl . -create /Groups/admin
dscl . -create /Groups/admin RealName Administrators
dscl . -create /Groups/admin PrimaryGroupID 80
dscl . -create /Groups/admin Password \*
dscl . -create /Groups/admin GroupMembership root

These commands will create the admin group, followed by setting the proper full name, and then set the group ID to the one which is used by the admin group in OS X. Lastly give the group an empty password, so it will require the use of the member passwords to work (requires authentication), and then assign the root account to the group. After running all the above commands restart the system and try giving users administrative access through the system preferences again (this may need to be done when logged in as root ).Once you have successfully changed a standard user to an admin account restart the computer and log in with the newly changed admin account and try to open security lock in system preferences to verify if your have really got the admin rights.

Tips: The command " id " can be used to displays the name of all the groups with their numeric IDs that a user is member of.
For example: 
kevin-hawkdive-computer:~ Kevin$ id
uid=501(Kevin) gid=501(Kevin) groups=501(Kevin),101(com.apple.accessscreensharing),98(_lpadmin),81(_appserveradm),79(appserverusr),80(admin)


Security Precaution:-  Above mentioned method can be used to reset any administrative account password or to change any account from standard to administrator and as a result you might be concerned about security of your files and folder that anyone can make these changes to your system. By default OS X does allow for this; however, there is a quick security settings you can make to prevent it and ensure that only you can perform these actions.

1. Enable Firmware Password
To prevent booting to alternative boot modes ( such as Single User Mode, recovery mode, verbose mode, boot from external disks ), you simply have to enable a firmware password on your system. To do this, reboot to the OS X installation drive (be it a DVD or the Recovery HD partition in OS X Lion or later) as mentioned in Option -1 in this article, choose your language when prompted, and then choose "Firmware Password" option in the Utilities menu at the top. Use this tool to set a firmware password, and then nobody will be able to reset PRAM, boot to Safe Mode, Single User Mode, or to alternative boot drives unless they either disable the password or supply it when prompted.

2. Turn Find My Mac on
If you have turned the Find My Mac on in iCloud settings under system preferences. You can remotely lock your lost Mac, this will also set a firmware password on your Mac to prevent a thief from using it. But you could set that firmware password ahead of time using recovery mode.

3. Keep sensitive information Password Protected


Keep all sensitive material on your system password-protected. This means that instead of leaving your financial and medical information directly on your hard drive, consider using encrypted disk images or other encryption options to ensure they are not accessible. Even if someone gains access to your account, without your keychain password or the password for the encrypted files, they will not be able to access them. Along these lines, you might also consider enabling FileVault and encrypting any external drives you use with your Mac (including Time Machine backups), to secure access to your files.

Disclaimer: Above written steps to reset password for root or to change a standard user to admin is intended for educational purposes only. I do not promote any hacking tips or activity. Hacking is against Law.Using these tricks outside your "own" test environment is considered malicious and is against the law.


**************End of the Article ****************

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